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根 据
Category/分类:社科 真实事件 时事 经济学 历史 地理
  Book ID/图书代码:13149008B25473
页数: 581 定价: 29.95美元 上传日期: 2008-11-21

English Summary/英文概要: The poor health of today’s roads—a subject close to the hearts of motorists, taxpayers, and government treasurers around the world—has resulted from faulty incentives that misdirect government decision-makers, according to the contributors to Street Smart. During the 1990s, bad government decision-making resulted in the U.S. Interstate Highway System growing by only one seventh the rate of traffic growth. The poor maintenance of existing roads is another concern. In cities around the world, highly political and wasteful government decision-making has led to excessive traffic congestion that has created long commutes, reduced safety, and caused loss of leisure time.

Street Smart examines the privatization of roads in theory and in practice. The authors see at least four possible roles for private companies, beyond the well-known one of working under contract to design, build, or maintain governmentally provided roads. These include testing and licensing vehicles and drivers; management of government-owned facilities; franchising; and outright private ownership. Two chapters describe the history of private roads in the United Kingdom and the United States. Contemporary examples are provided of road pricing, privatizing, and contracting out are evident in environs as diverse as Singapore, Southern California, and Scandinavia, and cities as different as Bergen, Norway, and London, England. Finally, several chapters examine strategies for implementing privatization.

The principles governing providing scarce resources in free societies are well known. We apply them to such necessities as energy, food, and water so why not to “road space”? The main obstacle to private, or semi-private, ownership of roads is likely to remain the reluctance of the political class to give up a lucrative source of power and influence. Those who want decisions about road services to be controlled by the interplay of consumers and suppliers in free markets, rather than by politicians, will have to explain the need for change. Street Smart makes a powerful case for the need for change and sheds light on the complex issues involved.

Chinese Summary/中文概要: 18世纪和19世纪初私人收税路十分普遍,但是最终由于铁路激烈竞争和政府的规定,不得不减少。九十年代,政府的错误决定导致美国洲际公路系统增长率只有交通增长率的七分之一。现有道路的保养也成为另一个关心的话题。全球的城市,因为不科学的决定导致严重的交通阻塞。本书调查了在理论和实际上道路私有化的可行性。作者指出私营企业至少有四种功能。包括测试和授权交通工具和司机;政府所属器材的管理;特许经营;完全的私人所有制。还介绍了美国和英国道路私有化的历史。作者相信随着现代道路通行电子收费技术,私营企业会东山再起。(RY)

Awards/获奖情况: Street Smart: Competition, Entrepreneurship, and the Future of Roads by Gabriel Roth was named one of the Best 10 Books of the Year 2007 in planning by Planetizen, the Planning and Development Network. Their website reads: “In this provocative and enlightening compilation, the leading thinkers on privatization put forth market-based solutions for providing roadways and dealing with traffic congestion…. A valuable resource for understanding the argument for privatization.”

"Private turnpikes were commonplace in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries but they eventually succumbed to competition from railways and onerous government regulations. Street Smart makes an eloquent and convincing argument that the time is ripe for the private sector to make a comeback with a boost from modern electronic tolling technology and innovative contract designs. Chapters are organized into five parts that complement each other nicely. Early chapters explain why market forces allocate resources efficiently and describe various roles for the private sector in supplying road infrastructure and services. Later chapters describe the history of private roads and some recent, encouraging, developments with privatization, and suggest alternative ways forward in the course of privatization. Written by leading economists, engineers and other professionals, Street Smart is essential reading for academics, policy analysts and policy makers, as well as firms contemplating involvement themselves."---Robin Lindsey, Department of Economics, University of Alberta; Edmonton, Alberta

About the Author/作者介绍: Gabriel Roth, Research Fellow at the Independent Institute, has pioneered scholarly work on market-based roads, parking, and transit. Following a Rees Jeffreys Fellowship at the UK Road Research Laboratory, and studies at the Department of Applied Economics (University of Cambridge), on the economics of car parking, he worked for 20 years in five continents as a transportation economist for the World Bank. He has also authored studies for the governments of New Zealand and Sri Lanka, U.S. Agency for International Development, Inter-American Development Bank, Adam Smith Institute, International Center for Economic Growth, and other organizations, and served for three years as President of The Services Group, a consulting firm specializing in market-oriented approaches to economic development.

An author and contributor to scholarly volumes, his books include Paying for Roads: The Economics of Traffic Congestion (Penguin Books,1967); The Private Provision of Public Services in Developing Countries (World Bank, 1987); Roads in a Market Economy (Ashgate 1996); and Street Smart: Competition, Entrepreneurship, and the Future of Roads (The Independent Institute, 2006).

His articles have appeared in Traffic Quarterly, Economic Affairs, Transportation Quarterly, Transportation Research Record, Consumers’ Research, Traffic Engineering and Control, Reason, Public Works Financing, Local Transport Today, Washington Post, The Times (London), San Jose Mercury, and other publications.
交通运输经济学家,他的著作曾发表于Traffic Quarterly, Economic Affairs, Transportation Quarterly, Transportation Research Record, Consumers’ Research, Traffic Engineering and Control, Reason, Public Works Financing, Local Transport Today, 华盛顿邮报, The Times (London), San Jose Mercury.

Rights Status/版权销售情况:Simplified Chinese/简体中文:AVAILABLE
                               Complex/Traditional Chinese/繁体中文:AVAILABLE
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